Symmetry Analysis of Double-ikat Textile Patterns: Patan Patola and Geringsing

  • Nyoman Dewi Pebryani Clemson University
Keywords: symmetry, geringsing, patan patola, double-ikat


Symmetry analysis of textile patterns, which appear in the Patan Patola and Geringsing textiles produced by the double ikat technique in India and Indonesia, can provide information about the cultural relationship between ethnic groups. Symmetry is categorized into classes according to the Symmetry Group Theory. This article is based on a study in which eight textile samples were used: four Patan Patola textiles and four Geringsing textiles collected from an exhibition catalog. Each sample was examined based on the Symmetry Group Theory and divided into three class categories: point symmetry, one-dimensional, and two-dimensional classes. The results indicate high similarities among the symmetry classes of samples from these two ethnic groups, thereby suggesting that the patterns possess a common connection. Patan Patola and Geringsing textile patterns admitted pmm2 and d4in all samples, indicating intense interactions.


Bühler, A., Ramseyer, U., & Ramseyer-Gygi, N. (1975). Patola und Gĕringsing: Zeremonialtücher aus Indien und Indonesien: Führer durch das Museum für Völkerkunde und Schweizerische Museum für Volkskunde Basel: Sonderaustellung 1975/1976. Das Museum.

Buhler, A., & Fischer, E. (1979). The Patola of Gujarat: Double Ikat in India. Publication of the Rock Foundation, New York, and of the Museum of Ethnography, Basle.

Dhamija, J (2002). Woven Magic: The Affinity between Indian and Indonesian Textiles. Jakarta: Dian Rakyat.

Engelbrecht, William. (1974). The Iroquois: Archeological Patterning on the Tribal Level. World Archeology 6: 52-65.

Ramseyer, U., & Breger, U. (2009). The theatre of the universe: ritual and art in Tenganan Pegeringsingan, Bali. Museum der Kulturen Basel.

Ramseyer, U., Schaublin.,& Kartaschoff. (1991). Balinese Textile. British Museum Press:London.

Ramseyer, U. (1985). Clothing, Ritual, and Society in Tenganan Pengringsingan in Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden

Gesellschaft Basel 95: 191-241.

Sarabhai, M., & Dhamija, J. (1988). Patolas and Resist-Dyed Fabrics of India. New Jersey: Grantha Corporation.

Schattschneider, D. (1990). Vision of Symmetry: Netbooks, Periodic Drawings, and Related works of M.C.Escher. New York: W.H.Freeman and Company

Shephard, Anna O. (1948). The Symmetry of Abstract Design with Special Reference to Ceramic Decoration. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication no.574.

Shapiro, M. (1960). The Rotation of Drawings by Illeterate Africans. Journal of Social Psychology 52: 17-30.

Sudharsana, Ratna (2003). Identifikasi dan Inventarisasi Kain Geringsing di Desa Tenganan, Karangasem: 1-23.

Van Gelder, L. (1980). Ikat, Techniques for Designing and Weaving Warp, Weft, Double and Compound Ikat.

Washburn, D.K., & Crowe, D.W. (1988). Symmetries of Culture: Theory and Practice of Plane Pattern Analysis. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Washburn, D.K., & Crowe, D.W. (2004). Symmetries Comes of Age: The Role of Pattern in Culture. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Washburn, Dorothy K. (2004). Embedded Symmetries: Natural and Cultural. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico.

Washburn, Dorothy K. (1983). Symmetry analysis of ceramic design: two tests of the method on Neolithic material from Greece and the Aegean. In D.K Washburn editor, Structure and Cognition in Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Woods, H. J. (1935). 19—THE GEOMETRICAL BASIS OF PATTERN DESIGN. Part I: Point and Line Symmetry in Simple Figures and Borders. Journal of the Textile Institute Transactions, 26(6), T197-T210.

How to Cite
Dewi Pebryani, N. (2018). Symmetry Analysis of Double-ikat Textile Patterns: Patan Patola and Geringsing. Lekesan: Interdisciplinary Journal of Asia Pacific Arts, 1(2), 59-73.