Menjadi Lelaki Sejati: Maskulinitas Dalam Komik Daring Webtoon Indonesia

Asep Wawan Jatnika, Ferry Fauzi Hermawan

Abstract


Perkembangan teknologi telah mengubah cara penyebaran komik di Indonesia. Saat ini internet dan media sosial menjadi salah satu media utama penyebaran komik. Salah satu media yang menjadi pilihan tempat menyebarkan dan membaca komik adalah Webtoon. Tulisan ini bermaksud menganalisis wacana homoseksualitas dan maskulinitas yang terdapat dalam komik No Homo karya Apitnobaka yang diterbikan dalam Webtoon. Menggunakan pemahaman Foucault dan Bartkly tentang panoptikon dan gender hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa pembicaraan masyarakat (gosip) merupakan alat utama dalam pengonstruksian gender di masyarakat. Gosip berperan sebagai pengawas perilaku seperti apa yang boleh dilakukan laki-laki dan sebaliknya. Gosip berperan sebagai panoptikon dalam mengawasi pelanggengan konstruksi maskulinitas di masyarakat. Selain itu, ditemukan juga salah satu penanda maskulinitas ideal di masyarakat yaitu, laki-laki harus menjadi seorang alfa dan tidak bergantung pada orang lain. Jika seorang laki-laki tidak mampu memenuhi hal tersebut dirinya akan digolongkan bukan laki-laki ideal. Dalam komik No Homo dipandang memiliki orientasi seksual lain yaitu homoseksual yang dianggap tabu dalam masyarakat. Selain itu, komik No Homo merefleksikan dan melanggengkan anggapan bahwa orientasi seksual yang bukan hetero seperti homoseksual bukanlah berasal dari Indonesia. Hal itu dipandang sebagai bagian dari budaya Barat.

Technological developments have changed the way in which comics are circulated and distributed throughout Indonesia. Currently the internet and social media have become the primary media for the distribution of comics. One of the media that has been chosen for circulation, distribution and consumption of comics is Webtoon. This paper intends to analyze discourse in subjects such as homosexuality and masculinity as can be observed in Apitnobaka's No Homo comic as published on Webtoon. Using Foucault's and Bartkly's understanding of the panopticon and the gender; this study suggests that community talk (gossip) plays a major role in gender-building in society. Gossip serves as a supervisory behaviour that shapes gender norms in society i.e., what is considered as acceptable behaviour by a male or vice versa. Gossip serves as a panopticon in overseeing the construction of masculinity in consumer society. Moreover, it can be observed that one of the markers of ideal masculinity in the community is that a male must be an alpha and does not rely on the others can be found within this comic. If a male does not capably fulfil these terms, he will consequently be classified a as non-ideal man by consumer society. In No Homo comics, the male is portrayed as being of homosexual orientation and it is considered as taboo in society. In addition, No Homo comics reflect upon and perpetuate the assumption that sexual orientation other than heterosexual such as a homosexual is apart from Indonesian heteronormative culture. However, it is viewed as being a symptom of western culture.


Keywords


comic; homosexual; masculinity; panopticon; male

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agnes, T. (2016). Pembaca LINE Webtoon Indonesia Terbesar di Dunia. Retrieved from https://m.detik.com/hot/art/d-3274551/pembaca-line-ebtoon-indonesia-terbesar-di-dunia

Bartky, S. L. (2013). Foucault, femininity, and the modernization of patriarchal power. In C. R. Kim & S. McCann (Eds.), Feminist theory reader: Local and global perspectives (pp. 447–461). New York: Routledge.

Billman, B. N. (2006). The Enfleshment of Masculinity(s): The Maintenance of Hegemonic Masculinity. Universitas, 2(2), 2–10.

Bonneff, M. (1998). Komik Indonesia. (Y. Hamiyati, Ed.). Jakarta: KPG-Forum Jakarta-Paris.

Davis, R. (2013). Fighting like a girl : Gendered language in superhero comics. Griffith Working Papers in Pragmatics and Intercultural Communication, 6, 28–36.

Dover, J. K. Van. (2016). The Panopticon, the Pinkertons, and the Private Eye. The Lincoln Humanities Journal, 4, 15–26.

Feasey, R. (2008). Masculinity and Popular Television. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Foucault, M. (1995). Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage.

Glascock, J., & Preston-schreck, C. (2004). Gender and Racial Stereotypes in Daily Newspaper Comics : A Time-Honored Tradition ? Sex Roles, 51(October), 423–431.

Harding, C. (2008). The Influence of the “Decadent West”: Discourses of the Mass Media on Youth Sexuality in Indonesia. Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific, (18).

Hunt, K. N. (2015). THE COMIC BOOK VILLAIN’S BODY: DEVIANT SEXUALITY AND GENDER-TRANSGRESSION. Faculty of the Graduate College of the Oklahoma State University.

Lendrum, R. (2005). Queering Super-Manhood: Superhero Masculinity, Camp and Public Relations as a Textual Framework. IJOCA, SPRING.

Marketeers Editor. (2015). Cara LINE Pikat Tiga Juta Pembaca Komik Online Per Bulan. Retrieved from marketeers.com/cara-line-pikat-tiga-juta-pembaca-komik-online-per-bulan/

Murtagh, B. (2006). Istana kecantikan : the first Indonesian gay movie 1. South East Asia Research, 14(2), 211–230.

Murtagh, B. (2011). Coklat Stroberi : Satu Roman Indonesia dalam Tiga Rasa. Gandrung, 2(1), 45–72.

Palmer-Mehhta, V., & Hay, K. (2005). A Superhero for Gays ? Gay Masculinity and Green Lantern. The Journal of American Culture, 28(4), 390–404.

Parker, L. (2014). The moral panic about the socializing of young people in Minangkabau. Wacana, 1(1), 19–40.

Saraceno, M. J., & Tambling, R. B. (2013). The Sexy Issue: Visual Expression of Heteronormativity and Gender Identities in Cosmopolitan Magazine. The Qualitative Report, 18.

Sharma, J. (2009). Reflections on the Construction of Heteronormativity. Development, 52(1). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/216910509?accountid-25704

Wibowo, P. H. (2015). Si Jampang Jago Betawi; Kajian Tokoh dalam Komik Ganes TH. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31091/mudra.v33i1.158

Article metrics

Abstract views : 168 | views : 136

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed By

Crossref logo DOAJ Google Scholar   BASE


Editorial Office

Mudra Jurnal Seni Budaya
Indonesia Institute of The Arts of Denpasar
Jalan Nusa Indah Denpasar 80235
Phone : +62-361-227316 ext : 159 Fax : +62-361-236100
Email : penerbitan@isi-dps.ac.id

Creative Commons License
Mudra Jurnal Seni Budaya is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.