Symmetry Analysis of Double-ikat Textile Patterns: Patan Patola and Geringsing

Nyoman Dewi Pebryani


Symmetry analysis of the patterns appearing in the Patan Patola and Geringsing textiles produced by the double ikat technique in India and Indonesia can provide information about cultural relationship between these two ethnic groups. Symmetry, which describes the motion which generates a repeated design, are categorized under classes based on the theory of symmetry group. This study used 8 textile samples: 4 Patan Patola textiles and 4 Geringsing textiles collected from an exhibition catalogue. Each sample was then examined based on the symmetry group classes using three categories: point symmetry and one-dimensional and two-dimensional classes. The results show a high similarity in these symmetry classes for the samples from these two ethnic groups, suggesting the patterns have a common connection. Patan Patola and Geringsing textile patterns admitted p111 and d4 in all samples, indicating intense interaction. Hence, this study provides additional evidence of a close relationship between the areas that produce these textiles


symmetry; geringsing; patan patola; double-ikat

Full Text:



Bühler, A., Ramseyer, U., & Ramseyer-Gygi, N. (1975). Patola und Gĕringsing: Zeremonialtücher aus Indien und Indonesien: Führer durch das Museum für Völkerkunde und Schweizerische Museum für Volkskunde Basel: Sonderaustellung 1975/1976. Das Museum.

Buhler, A., & Fischer, E. (1979). The Patola of Gujarat: Double Ikat in India. Publication of the Rock Foundation, New York, and of the Museum of Ethnography, Basle.

Dhamija, J (2002). Woven Magic: The Affinity between Indian and Indonesian Textiles. Jakarta: Dian Rakyat.

Engelbrecht, William. (1974). The Iroquois: Archeological Patterning on the Tribal Level. World Archeology 6: 52-65.

Ramseyer, U., & Breger, U. (2009). The theatre of the universe: ritual and art in Tenganan Pegeringsingan, Bali. Museum der Kulturen Basel.

Ramseyer, U., Schaublin.,& Kartaschoff. (1991). Balinese Textile. British Museum Press:London.

Ramseyer, U. (1985). Clothing, Ritual, and Society in Tenganan Pengringsingan in Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden

Gesellschaft Basel 95: 191-241.

Sarabhai, M., & Dhamija, J. (1988). Patolas and Resist-Dyed Fabrics of India. New Jersey: Grantha Corporation.

Schattschneider, D. (1990). Vision of Symmetry: Netbooks, Periodic Drawings, and Related works of M.C.Escher. New York: W.H.Freeman and Company

Shephard, Anna O. (1948). The Symmetry of Abstract Design with Special Reference to Ceramic Decoration. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication no.574.

Shapiro, M. (1960). The Rotation of Drawings by Illeterate Africans. Journal of Social Psychology 52: 17-30.

Sudharsana, Ratna (2003). Identifikasi dan Inventarisasi Kain Geringsing di Desa Tenganan, Karangasem: 1-23.

Van Gelder, L. (1980). Ikat, Techniques for Designing and Weaving Warp, Weft, Double and Compound Ikat.

Washburn, D.K., & Crowe, D.W. (1988). Symmetries of Culture: Theory and Practice of Plane Pattern Analysis. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Washburn, D.K., & Crowe, D.W. (2004). Symmetries Comes of Age: The Role of Pattern in Culture. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Washburn, Dorothy K. (2004). Embedded Symmetries: Natural and Cultural. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico.

Washburn, Dorothy K. (1983). Symmetry analysis of ceramic design: two tests of the method on Neolithic material from Greece and the Aegean. In D.K Washburn editor, Structure and Cognition in Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Woods, H. J. (1935). 19—THE GEOMETRICAL BASIS OF PATTERN DESIGN. Part I: Point and Line Symmetry in Simple Figures and Borders. Journal of the Textile Institute Transactions, 26(6), T197-T210.


Article metrics

Abstract views : 3 | views : 1


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed By

Crossref logo Google Scholar   BASE

Editorial Office

LEKESAN Interdiciplinary Journal of Asia Pasific Arts
Indonesia Institute of The Arts of Denpasar
Jalan Nusa Indah Denpasar 80235
Phone : +62-361-227316 ext : 159 Fax : +62-361-236100
Email :

Creative Commons License
LEKESAN is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.