Antara Teori Formula Albert B Lord dan Musikologi

Nugrahanstya Cahya Widyanta

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Kajian sastra lisan dan musikologi memiliki keterkaitan yang belum banyak diungkapkan. Tulisan ini ingin menunjukkan bahwa musik merupakan bingkai kelisanan untuk menggiring sebuah keteraturan dalam pengkalimatan karya sastra lisan Yugoslavia. Hal tersebut diteliti dengan menggunakan metode kualitatif. Analisis data dilakukan melalui tiga tahap, yaitu reduksi data, penyajian data, dan mengambil kesimpulan kemudian melakukan verifikasi. Data yang diperoleh bersumber dari buku The Singer of Tales tulisan Albert B Lord yang mencakup penjelasan mengenai teori formula dalam sastra lisan Yugoslavia. Data tersebut dianalisis menggunakan teori bentuk dan struktur musikal Leon Stein. Komposisi dalam karya kelisanan tersebut dikaji melalui teori formula Lord. Dalam hal ini, pelantun mengingat perulangan dan menciptakan melalui analogi dengan perulangan kata, frasa, klausa, dan larik yang telah ada. Terdapat proses akumulasi, kombinasi, dan pemodelan kembali terhadap formula yang telah ada. Dengan demikian setiap pelantun memiliki gayanya masing-masing dalam penceritaan karya sastra lisan tersebut, namun setiap pelantun selalu memiliki jumlah suku kata yang sama dalam setiap pengkalimatan.  Hal ini dapat terjadi dikarenakan rasa musikal yang dipakai. Para pelantun tidak pernah menghitung jumlah suku kata yang ada namun keteraturan tersebut dapat terjadi karena adanya rasa musikal. 

Kata kunci: teori formula, Albert B Lord, sastra lisan, musikologi.

 

ABSTRACT

Study of oral literature and a discipline named musicology have a linkage that has never been very often expressed yet. This paper is to reveal that music is an oral frame to bring a regularity in making sentences of oral literature  works in Yugoslavia. Such a thing is researched using a qualitative method. Data analysis is done through three steps, they are data reduction, data display, and conclusion and verification. The data is taken from a book entitled The Singer by Albert B Lord containing his theoretical formula concerning the oral literature in Yugoslavia. It is analysed by using a theory of musical form and structure by Leon Stein. Compositions in the oral literature is seen using Lord’s theory of formula. In this case, a singer remembers the repetition and creates it by analogy by the way of repeating  the existing words, phrases, clauses, and arrays. There is a process of re-accumulating,  re-combinating, and re-modelling the existing formula. So, the singer has his or her own style in expressing the works of the oral literature, but he or she always has the same number of syllables in every sentence. This can happen due to the musical taste used. The singer never count the number of syllables that exists but such regularity can occur due to the musical taste.

Keywords: formula theory, Albert B Lord, musicology, oral literature.


Keywords


teori formula, Albert B Lord, sastra lisan, musikologi.

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References


DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Duckworth, William; Edward Brown. 1987. Theoritical Foundation of Music. Belmont: California Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc.

Lord, Albert B. 1971. The Singer of Tales, New York: Harvard University Press.

Nattiez, Jean Jacques. 1990. Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music. (terj. Carolyn Abbate). New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Soejono, H. Abdurrahman. 2005. Metode Penelitian suatu Pemikiran dan Penerapan, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Stein, Leon. 1979. Structure & Style The Study and Analysis of Musical Forms. USA: Summy Birchard, Inc.

Susanto, A. 1997. Komunikasi dalam Teori dan Praktek. Bandung: Bina Cipta.


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